US Nuclear Tests Killed More Civilians Than Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Eventually between 340,000 and 690,000 Americans had their lives shortened by drinking contaminated milk far from the test sites

When the US entered the nuclear age, it did so recklessly. New research suggests that the hidden cost of developing nuclear weapons were far larger than previous estimates, with radioactive fallout responsible for 340,000 to 690,000 American deaths from 1951 to 1973.

The study, performed by University of Arizona economist Keith Meyersuses a novel method (pdf) to trace the deadly effects of this radiation, which was often consumed by Americans drinking milk far from the site of atomic tests.

From 1951 to 1963, the US tested nuclear weapons above ground in Nevada. Weapons researchers, not understanding the risks—or simply ignoring them—exposed thousands of workers to radioactive fallout. The emissions from nuclear reactions are deadly to humans in high doses, and can cause cancer even in low doses. At one point, researchers had volunteers stand underneath an airburst nuclear weapon to prove how safe it was:

The emissions, however, did not just stay at the test site, and drifted in the atmosphere. Cancer rates spiked in nearby communities, and the US government could no longer pretend that fallout was anything but a silent killer.

The cost in dollars and lives

Congress eventually paid more than $2 billion to residents of nearby areas that were particularly exposed to radiation, as well as uranium miners. But attempts to measure the full extent of the test fallout were very uncertain, since they relied on extrapolating effects from the hardest-hit communities to the national level. One national estimate found the testing caused 49,000 cancer deaths.

Those measurements, however, did not capture the full range of effects over time and geography. Meyers created a broader picture by way of a macabre insight: When cows consumed radioactive fallout spread by atmospheric winds, their milk became a key channel to transmit radiation sickness to humans. Most milk production during this time was local, with cows eating at pasture and their milk being delivered to nearby communities, giving Meyers a way to trace radioactivity across the country.

The National Cancer Institute has records of the amount of Iodine 131—a dangerous isotope released in the Nevada tests—in milk, as well as broader data about radiation exposure. By comparing this data with county-level mortality records, Meyers came across a significant finding: “Exposure to fallout through milk leads to immediate and sustained increases in the crude death rate.” What’s more, these results were sustained over time. US nuclear testing likely killed seven to 14 times more people than we had thought, mostly in the midwest and northeast.

A weapon against its own people

When the US used nuclear weapons during World War II, bombing the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, conservative estimates suggest 250,000 people died in immediate aftermath. Even those horrified by the bombing didn’t realize that the US would deploy similar weapons against its own people, accidentally, and on a comparable scale.

And the cessation of nuclear testing helped save US lives—”the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty might have saved between 11.7 and 24.0 million American lives,” Meyers estimates. There was also some blind luck involved in reducing the number of poisoned people: The Nevada Test Site, compared to other potential testing facilities the US government considered at the time, produced the lowest atmospheric dispersal.

The lingering effects of these tests remain, as silent and as troublesome as the isotopes themselves. Millions of Americans who were exposed to fallout likely suffer illnesses related to these tests even today, as they retire and rely on the US government to fund their health care.

“This paper reveals that there are more casualties of the Cold War than previously thought, but the extent to which society still bears the costs of the Cold War remains an open question,” Meyers concludes.

Source: Quartz

  1. Sally Snyder says

    As shown in this article, House Democrats in Washington are proposing legislation that will dramatically change the presidential prerogative on the use of nuclear weapons:

    This move would suggest one of two things:

    1.) The Democrats are reacting to the Trump presidency.

    2.) The Democrats are reacting to Biden’s possible cognitive issues.

  2. ken says

    Even back in the day, governments, scientists, medical doctors treated people like test subjects…. Come on! They knew even then radiation was harmful,,, same as they are doing today with their experimental gene hacking vaccines. Will anyone be left to show the utter stupidity as in this video? Who knows…. it’s experimental, remember.

  3. Hal Womack says

    Now that the reader has finished the article above, the movie to watch = MULHOLLAND FALLS [1996] directed by Lee Tamahori,

  4. STeveK9 says

    Absolute nonsense from yet another anti-nuke.

  5. jun admana says

    Maybe an article about the US and French nuclear tests done in the Pacific Islands. There were numerous tests done! 

    1. Eddy says

      Better still, how about an article about the ATMOSPHERIC NUCLEAR TESTING, which caused the depletion of the Ozone layer. Not one nation that carried out these tests, will admit today, the damage they caused.

  6. JJ. says

    Living in America can mean this crap.
    But not many will show this site why?
    Now the whole world is a target if “they” like.
    Not the right or left can stop this???

  7. Jerry Hood says

    I was living in the liberal,Demon-rats run state of Washington
    and everybody knows the leaking Hanford nuclear facility,killing thousands of people every year dirrectly, and harming tens of thousands,indirrectly! Now, in that area of ” Three-cities”, only Mexicans live mostly, the white ‘ gringos’ runned out of that contaminsted,deadly area!

  8. Mr Reynard says

    Quote:US Nuclear Tests Killed More Civilians Than Hiroshima and Nagasaki..
    But it was for a good cause & done with good intentions …

  9. yuri says

    to this day the immoral barbarians justify using atom bombs against Japan

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