S-400 Exceeded Expectations in Turkey’s Military Tests
The Turks are also now satisfied the system is not sending anything back to Russia
Since the first regiment set of S-400 Triumph anti-aircraft missile systems was delivered to Turkey, they have already been subject to, and passed, tests of their ability demonstrating results which actually exceeded customer expectations, a Gazeta.Ru source familiar with the situation has said.
At such events, as a rule, it is specified at what ranges, altitudes and courses airborne objects are detected, they are steadily tracked in certain modes and it is checked whether data obtained is consistent with the previously stated tactical and technical characteristics.
The Turkish military carried out the so-called round-trip of the standard and given radar means of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile system – the 91N6E radar complex as part of the command post of the system, the 92N6E anti-aircraft missile battalion multifunctional radar station (radar station) and the 96L6E all-altitude detector, which was deployed on a 24-meter high tower .
According to the interlocutor of “Gazeta.Ru”, the Turks carried out such a flyby program that surpasses even similar Russian events in its intensity and tension. Two F-16s, one F-4 and a helicopter were constantly in the air for eight hours with air refueling, entered from different directions and altitudes (including extremely small), flew into the so-called “dead craters” of radar equipment ( and each locator objectively has them), made passes over complexes and stations with a wide variety of speeds.
The entrance into the zone of destruction of air defense systems of aircraft and helicopters ended with an electronic shot of the S-400 air defense system, i.e., it was not a real missile that was launched, but its electronic model.
In addition, Turkish planes were grouped, dispersed, and, most importantly, flew around the S-400 radar in a circle. And this means in practice that their radial speed for the S-400 locators was close to zero.
The Turkish side initially had doubts as to whether Triumph would be able to detect and stably track air targets with zero radial speed. According to the results of the flight, they had unequivocal confidence that the S-400 easily accomplishes such goals.
It is noted that according to the results of the flight, Triumph demonstrated extremely high abilities to detect and track airborne objects.
The Turkish military counted on the high combat qualities of the Russian anti-aircraft missile system, but the reality exceeded all their expectations, the source has said.
Juicy details about Turkish test of Russian made S-400 radar:
• Surpassed the expectations
• Two F-16, one F-4, and one chopper were on air for 8 hours with refuelling in the air
• Tested different directions, altitudes, including “dead craters”https://t.co/zUBsTg6yHy
— Ragıp Soylu (@ragipsoylu) December 5, 2019
• The S-400 radar even detected planes close to zero radial speed
• The radar using MARK-XII NATO recognition system with a Turkish crypto computer
• It is run on a protocol that excludes “foe, friends” system to allow use of S-400 radar side by side NATO weaponry
— Ragıp Soylu (@ragipsoylu) December 5, 2019
As for the statements of individual military experts that “the S-400 was tested in a passive mode of operation”, they should be recognized as false, since without flying high voltage on air defense systems of air defense systems and air defense systems and broadcasting, no overflights are possible in principle.
A lot of questions arise in connection with the possibility of interfacing the S-400 Triumph air defense systems with NATO’s automated air defense / missile control systems .
Obtaining information about the enemy air activity from superior and interacting units and formations within the framework of the automated control system (ACS) of the air defense / missile defense of the North Atlantic Alliance will never be impossible for the S-400, as, indeed, for any other anti-aircraft missile system.
As previously reported by “Gazeta.Ru” , the task of pairing the S-400 air defense system is technically solvable. The whole question is perhaps in time and price.
To solve this problem, it is necessary to create appropriate protocols for the exchange of information and racks [cab] interfaces. In this regard, at least the joint work of two designers will be required – on the Russian side and on the part of the corresponding developer of NATO systems. However, it is currently difficult to imagine a similar level of interaction.
The opinion of some high-ranking American generals (for example, Curtis Scaparotti) that the S-400 is supposedly impossible to integrate into the general air defense system of the North Atlantic Alliance is wrong. There are no fundamental obstacles to the integration of Triumph air defense systems into NATO’s air defense / missile defense systems.
In addition, a certain US concern regarding Turkey’s purchase of the S-400 Triumph air defense system was mainly related to the problems of integrating the S-400 SAM system, which can (hypothetically) negatively affect the general air defense system / NATO ABM.
The fact is that in the USA and in the NATO member states the state recognition system MARK-XII (Mk-XII) is used. It implements the following operating modes: 1 and 2 (military modes), 3 / A (civilian mode, provided in S-400 air defense radar systems delivered to Turkey), 4 (military, imitation resistant mode, provides protection against provocation).
In the fourth Mk-XII mode in the S-400 air defense system in Turkey, it is necessary to use a strictly Turkish cryptocomputer in the ground radar interrogator (NRZ), which will ensure the operation of mode 4 (imitation-resistant) and thereby exclude unwanted imitation of the operation of the “friend or foe” system .
The first S-400 regiment kit is delivered to Turkey with a Russian-made ground-based radar interrogator of the Mk-XII (NATO) system. It is built according to the well-known STANAG 4193 standard and is compatible with the ICAO standard (civil secondary radar of international air traffic control).
In addition to this, the Russian-made Mk-XII radar interrogator (NRZ) and the antenna of each S-400 Triumph air defense system will operate for transmission with the well-known frequency of 1030 MHz, and for reception with a frequency of 1090 MHz.
At first, in Turkey, there was an unequivocal opinion that it was impossible to integrate the Turkish crypto block into the Russian NRH with regime 4 because of many technical and organizational obstacles. An acceptable solution in this regard is the use of the Turkish interrogator in the S-400 air defense system along with the national cryptoblock.
Therefore, the first regimental set of S-400 air defense systems is delivered to Turkey with the Russian NRZ system Mk-XII (NATO). Subsequently, it will be replaced by the Turkish ground-based radar interrogator developed by Aselsan. With the delivery of the second regimental set of S-400, it is planned to immediately use Turkish-made refineries.
However, during the flight, the Turkish side was convinced that the interrogation-response system delivered with the S-400 air defense system was perfectly integrated into their national state recognition system.Therefore, it is quite possible that the second set will be delivered with our means of identification, the source of Gazeta.Ru suggests.
Moreover, the Turks were finally convinced that the S-400 Triumph air defense system did not have any means to transmit the so-called key information anywhere. That is, in the recognition system “friend or foe”, “codes” are not transmitted anywhere.
There are simply no such equipment and radar facilities in the S-400 air defense system. When generating a request or response code, a set of certain pulses is transmitted and, except for the receiving and transmitting antennas of the NRH, it does not go anywhere.
Moreover, according to Gazeta.Ru, the Turks wished that the option “friendly target” was pre-installed in the request and response equipment in the second regimental set of S-400 air defense systems, which would be sent to Turkey in the near future.
The Turkish side believes that they need such an additional mode of operation for the interrogator in the S-400 on the national territory.
At the same time, Nils Schmid, deputy of the Bundestag from the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), said that NATO should respond to Ankara’s purchase of Russian S-400 systems and be able to deploy US missile defense systems in Turkey.
“Firstly, this has become a problem for NATO, and therefore we need a decisive response from NATO, because we believe that the deployment of Russian weapons on Turkish soil threatens NATO unity. That is why we must find another way to protect the territory of Turkey from missiles, ”RIA Novosti quoted him as saying.